Saturday, June 3, 2017

Network Protocols
TCP has no special "I lost a packet!" message. Instead, ACKs are cleverly reused to indicate loss. Any out-of-order packet causes the receiver to re-ACK the last "good" packet – the last one in the correct order. In effect, the receiver is saying "I received packet 5, which I'm ACKing. I also received something after that, but I know it wasn't packet 6 because it didn't match the next sequence number in packet 5."

If two packets simply got switched in transit, this will result in a single extra ACK and everything will continue normally after the out-of-order packet is received. But if the packet was truly lost, unexpected packets will continue to arrive and the receiver will continue to send duplicate ACKs of the last good packet. This can result in hundreds of duplicate ACKs.

When the sender sees three duplicate ACKs in a row, it assumes that the following packet was lost and retransmits it. This is called TCP fast retransmit because it's faster than the older, timeout-based approach. It's interesting to note that the protocol itself doesn't have any explicit way to say "please retransmit this immediately!" Instead, multiple ACKs arising naturally from the protocol serve as the trigger.

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